# 22 Shruti Research Topics

 It can be seen that Rishabha present as R1 in Shadja Grama automatically changes to R2 in Madhyama Grama. Therefore, to keep similarity of Rishabha at 111.11 also in Madhyama Grama, Bharata suggested that Panchama (of original Shadja scale i.e., P2) should be reduced by 1 shruti in Madhyama Grama . This can be accomplished by reducing P2 from 150 to P1 = 148.148148148, which brings Rishabha at the same distance at 111.11 also in Madhyama Grama as shown below.
 Bharata further stated that the extent of this reduction should be termed as the "PRAMANA SHRUTI" and today we can demonstrate that, this is equal to 150/148.148148 = 1.025 ! Thus, according to Bharata, because of the change from P2 to P1, the sequence of shrutis in the 2 Gramas changes as shown below. This table is very important and unfortunately quite poorly understood by many. Please read the explanations provided below the table to get a correct understanding of what Bharata meant. It shows how a shruti from P (in Shadja Grama) is passed on to D (in Madhyama Grama).
 Table showing "Sequential" positioning of Bharata's Shrutis. For him, Shruti was simply an expression of "Distance from previous Note". (To reiterate, at the time of Bharata, the 7 note Indian scale consisted of S, R1, g1, M1, P, D1, and n1)
 The confusion about 'which' is the '1st' shruti is worthless. Because, to get S on 4th shruti, (as stated by Bharata), n1 will have to be the '1st' shruti. But some argue as to how n1 can arise at all in the absence of S ? For them, S is taken as the starting point, N2 will be the 22nd shruti and S' will be on the '23rd' shruti. In any case, what is important is that the distances and the frequencies of 22 shrutis in both Gramas from respective Shadjas do not change ! Thus, the no. of shrutis on which the Swaras are placed (as shown by Bharata) is as below. The difference in no. of shrutis in 2 Gramas is highlighted in colour again.
 Further, some of the important statements of Bharata and their mathematical explanation is given below.
 Thus, when Bharata said that S 'has' 4 shrutis, it only means that S sits at a distance of 4 shrutis from n1…and so on. It does not mean that S has 4 different frequencies !! Bharata probably saw Madhyama Grama as a proper scale for singing by females, whos' voices are approximately at a 50% higher pitch than males. For this Female scale of Madhyama Grama, he therefore had to reduce P2 from P1 to strike a similarity of Rishabha (to reside at 111.11 as R1) in both Gramas. Thus, Bharatamuni's division of 22 shrutis in Shadja and Madhyam Gramas can be understood well without any confusion.