22 Shruti Research Topics


Topic 2 : Non-English Musical, Technical and other terms


Dr. Vidyadhar Oke

  Achala  Immovable notes in the Octave. These do not have a lower and a higher version. They include Shadja, and Pancham.
  Adhar Swara  An additional note used to support a Swara
  Ati-Tara  Extremely high pitched.
  Besur  Non-melodious. Out of tune.
  Bharatmuni  An ancient Indian Scholar, the author of Natya-Shastra, a treatise on Music and Dance.
  Bharat Ratna  The highest honour in India conferred by Government of India.
  Bhava  Relationship or Ratio.
  Bhedasthana  The alternative version of the note.
  Chadha/i   Note of a higher frequency
  Chakra  Wheel
  Dha  Short form of Dhaivat. Equivalent of 'La' in Western Classical music. There are 2 notes of Dhaivat in the Octave. One, Komal Dhaivat, and the other, Shuddha Dhaivat.
  Dhaivat  Equivalent of 'La' in Western Classical music.
  Dvavinshak  The Indian Saptak (Scale) consisting of 22 Shrutis
  Eka  One
  Eka-Shruti  At a distance of one Shruti.
  Ga  Short form of Gandhar. Equivalent of 'Mi' in Western Classical music. There are 2 notes of Gandhar in the Octave. One, Komal Gandhar, and the other, Shuddha Gandhar.
  Gandhar  Equivalent of 'Mi' in Western Classical music.
  Guru  Teacher
  Hindustani  Indian. Usually used to denote 'North' Indian music.
  Jod Swaras   Additional notes used to link 2 Swaras
  Kana Sparsha  A note used slightly or taken quickly in transit
  Karnatak  Denotes 'South' Indian music.
  Kharja  Low pitched, Bass, also called as 'Mandra'.
  Komal  Signifies lower (flat) version of the note.
  Komal Dha  9th note in the Octave.
  Komal Ga  4th note in the Octave.
  Komal Ni  11th note in the Octave.
  Komal Re  2nd note in the Octave.
  Kramasthana  The sequential version of the note.
  Ma  Short form of Madhyam. Equivalent of 'Fa' in Western Classical music. There are 2 notes of Madhyam in the Octave. One, Shuddha Madhyam, and the other, Teevra Madhyam.
  Madhya  Medium (normal) pitched.
  Madhyam  Equivalent of 'Fa' in Western Classical music.
  Mandra  Low pitched, Bass, also called as 'Kharja'.
  Nadaguna  When the source object of sound vibrates to produce different harmonics, their mixture is interpreted by the human ear as having a 'particular' quality. This Harmonic profile of the source is termed as "Timbre" or "Nadaguna", and is very characteristic of the source.
  Nirman  Creation
  Natya-Shastra  a treatise on Music and Dance written by Bharatmuni, an ancient Indian scholar
  Ni  Short form of Nishad. Equivalent of 'Ti' in Western Classical music. There are 2 notes of Nishad in the Octave. One, Komal Nishad, and the other, Shuddha Nishad.
  Nyasa  Holding of note in a steady manner.
  Nyuna Shruti  Ratio of 1.041666666 (25/24) existing between the 3rd and the 4th Shruti and repeating later at regular intervals.
  Padmashree  An honour conferred by the Govt. of India on exemplary contribution.
  Pancham  Equivalent of 'So' in Western classical music. 8th note in the Octave.
  Pancha-maha-bhootas  The big and essential 5 elements of the world, namely, the fire, water, earth, air and space.
  Parampara  Tradition.
  Poornna Shruti  Ratio of 1.053497942 (256/243) existing between the 1st and the 2nd Shruti and repeating later at regular intervals.
  Poorvanga  The proximal (S:P) portion of Raga/Octave.
  Prakrut   Natural.
  Pramana Shruti  Ratio of 1.0125 (81/80) existing between the 2nd Shruti and 3rd Shruti and repeating later at regular intervals.
  Raga  The perceptible creation of a 'musical design' made by using selected notes in the Octave, by traditional methods of rendering these notes.
  Raga sangeet  Music created by Raga.
  Re  Short form of Rishabha. Equivalent of 'Re' in Western Classical music.There are 2 notes of Rishabha in the Octave. One, Komal Rishabha, and the other, Shuddha Rishabha.
  Sa  Short form of Shadja. Fundamental or the 1st note in the Octave. Equivalent of 'Do' in Western Classical music.
  Samvad  Musical relationship.
  Samsad  A musical body.
  Saptak  Octave.
  Shadja  The fundamental tone or 1st note in the Octave.
  Shishya  Student.
  Shruti  Musical note. There are 22 basic musical notes within an Octave as per Indian Classical Music.
  Shrutyantara  Distance between different musical notes.
  Shuddha  Seven basic notes in the Saptak, namely, S, R, G, M, P, D, N. Also called as 'Prakrut' (Natural notes).
  Shuddha Dha  10th note in the Octave.
  Shuddha Ga  5th note in the Octave.
  Shuddha Ma  6th note in the Octave.
  Shuddha Ni  12th note in the Octave.
  Shuddha Re  3rd note in the Octave.
  Surel  Melodious. In tune.
  Swara  A musical note selected from 22 basic musical notes or Shrutis for performance (in a raga).
  Susamvad  Consonance.
  Swarakshetra  A 'range' of individual frequencies, which are all identified as the 'same' musical note for 10 notes in a Saptkak (excluding Shadja and Pancham)
  Swayambhu  Naturally created.
  Tanpura  A tradionally used musical instrument (of well-tuned strings) in India creating a backdrop of harmonic musical sounds on which a classical performance is made.
  Tara  High pitched.
  Teevra  Signifies a higher (sharp) version of the note.
  Teevra Ma  7th note in the Octave.
  Teevratama  Signifies a still higher version of note than the Teevra version.
  Utara/i  Note of a lower frequency
  Uttaranga  The distal (P:S') portion of a Raga/Octave.
  Vikrut  Five notes in the Octave excluding, Shuddha notes. They signify flat or sharp versions. They are r, g, m, d, n.

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